El camino del Elder

Cambio imprevisto o decidido ¿Cómo abordarlo?


En la vida y en nuestras organizaciones nos encontramos con procesos de cambio que a veces nos sobrevienen y otras veces escogemos. Sean del tipo que sean el proceso de tránsito de un estado a otro es complejo, a veces con incertidumbre, otras con gran carga emocional, y si se trata de un cambio que afecta a un equipo u organización, compartiremos ese proceso con una gran diversidad de ritmos y maneras de transitar.

Os queremos dejar algunas notas sobre tipos y modelos de cambio que quizá os traigan un poco de luz y os ayuden a vivirlos o a iniciarlos.


Existen a grandes rasgos dos tipos de cambios:

  • Imprevistos: Algo cambia en nuestro entorno y tenemos que ajustarnos de alguna manera a la nueva situación
  • Decididos: No estamos del todo satisfechos con algo que hacemos y decidimos hacer pasos para cambiarlo

En el caso de que sea un cambio decidido, dentro del ámbito organizativo, tenemos de nuevo dos tipos:

  • Dirigido: El cambio surge desde una parte de la organización con poder suficiente para implantarlo a nivel global (normalmente surge desde la dirección)
  • Participativo: La intención de cambio surge también desde una parte del sistema, pero se invita a todo el sistema a participar en el proceso


Dentro de los procesos de cambio imprevistos, la mayoría de modelos existentes se basan en el modelo de Kübler-Ross, que se creó inicialmente para explicar la transición que vive una persona tras la muerte o la pérdida de un ser querido o para acompañar personas en estados terminales. Este modelo de duelo se utiliza también (con algunas variaciones) para explicar cambios sobrevenidos que ocurren a los equipos y organizaciones.

Las fases de este modelo son las siguientes:

  1. Choque. Sorpresa ante un evento o situación que nos ocurre a nivel personal, de equipo o de organización
  2. Negación. Incredulidad, búsqueda de evidencias de que lo que está ocurriendo no puede estar pasando
  3. Frustración. Lento reconocimeintos de que las cosas son efectivamente distintas. Aparecen aquí sentimientos de frustración y rabia.
  4. Depresión. Estado de ánimo de baja energía, desmotivación e inseguridad sobre el futuro
  5. Aceptación. Cambio de actitud, sensación de que es necesario seguir adelante
  6. Integración. El cambio se asume, se aprecian las ventajas que éste trae, las personas se sienten con energía renovada


Por lo que respecta a los modelos de cambio decidido, existen muchos disponibles, mencionaremos algunos por si queréis profundizar en ellos:

  • El modelo de los 8 pasos de Kotter es un ejemplo de cambio decidido que se iniciará desde una posición de poder en la organización. Describe cómo tiene que ser el proceso para que sea exitoso, pero no entra tanto en definir las fases de éste.
  • El modelo ADKAR sí apunta 5 fases que deberían estar presentes (y seguirse en este orden) en todo proceso de cambio consciente:
    • Awareness
    • Desire
    • Knowledge
    • Ability/Action
    • Reinforcement
  • El modelo de la Teoría U describe también 5 fases para un cambio consciente y participativo en un movimiento desde fuera hacia dentro y hacia abajo, y desde el interior de vuelta al exterior y hacia arriba (en forma de U)
    • Coiniciar
    • Copercibir
    • Copresenciar
    • Cocrear
    • Coevolucionar
  • El modelo de Indagación Apreciativa es también un modelo de cambio decidido y participativo, y propone 4 fases  que se podrían también integrar en los modelos anteriores:
    • Descubrimiento
    • Sueño
    • Diseño
    • Destino

Podemos diseñar nuestros procesos de cambio combinando más de uno de los modelos anteriores, ya que atienden a distintos aspectos del proceso de cambio.

Este jueves tenemos una píldora online sobre Gestión del cambio, en la que abordaremos en más detalle algunos de los modelos anteriores. Si te interesa participar tienes más información en este post


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El Camino del Elder.

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